1). What Is The Differences Between I.s.o And C.m.m Levels?
Ans)The CMM is a way to communicate capabilities. CMM is a very specific way of classifying an organization's software development methods.
The ISO is a way to communicate the process. ISO-procedures describe a (possibly) definite development and process but gives no indication of the likely quality of the designs or whether multiple software efforts are likely to produce software of similar quality.
2). What Is A Quality Management Plan (qmp)?
Ans) A QMP is a formal plan that documents an entity's management system for the environmental work to be performed. The QMP is an "umbrella" document which describes the organization's quality system in terms of the organizational structure, functional responsibilities of management and staff, lines of authority, and required interfaces with those planning, implementing, and assessing all environmentally related activities conducted.
3).What Are The Benefits Of Quality Management System?
4).Which Steps Must Be Used In Implementing A Quality Management System?
Ans) The Deming cycle ( PDCA ) is recommended to be followed in establishing & implementing a quality management systems.
5). In The Region, Where There Is No Quality Management, What Would You Do To Introduce The Concept Of Tqm?
Ans) Where Quality processes are not available, I would encourage them to identify and document their each and every task for each process. Then, I would encourage them to define and document what they can do for minimizing human or machine errors.
I would encourage them to identify wastage's like material or time wasters and define process to minimize these wastage's. I would ask them to record and document each finding and strive to improve each process
6). What Is The Difference Between Quality Assurance And Quality Control?
Quality Assurance :
Quality Control :
7). What Are The Quality Principles?
Ans)There are 8 quality principles such as
8).What Are Six Mandatory Quality Procedures?
9).What Is Quality Improvement Activities?
Ans) Quality improvement activities is an opportunity for the practice's GPs and staff members to come together as a team to consider quality improvement.
10).How Do States Move From Discovery To Action?
Ans) The purpose of the discovery process is to produce information that can inform decisions and point to actions for remediation and quality improvement. This paper has focused on ways to develop a reliable and robust set of discovery methods as a foundation for an overall quality management system. Moving from the production of accurate and reliable data to presentation of understandable and actionable information requires a number of additional techniques and tools.
11). Do The Discovery Methods Produce Data That Informs Or Serves To Improve The Policy, Management, Or Operational Aspects Of The Program?
Ans)Beyond the evidence required by CMS, program managers need information to develop their quality management plans and to monitor and manage their programs. The CMS framework provides a way to structure an assessment of whether current discovery methods can produce information to meet this need.
12). Reduction Of Scrap Increases Profitability?
13). Differentiate Between Product Quality And Process Quality?
Product quality means we concentrate always final quality but in case of process quality we set the process parameter
14). What Is Meant By Risk? How You Can Avoid The Risks?
Ans) Risk can be anything that leads to failure / defect / error in the application or process. We can avoid risk by applying proper risk matrix in the process. Risk Matrix shows the controls within application systems used to reduce the identified risk, and in what segment of the application those risks exist.
Team members are leaving from the organization in the middle of the project is the risk for the Manager.For that he can take the preventive action by ask for the bond from the employee or can have the countable backups in the project.
15).What Is Defect Rejection Ratio (drr) And Defect Leakage Ratio (dlr)?
Ans) DRR = # of Defects Rejected/Tester to assess the tester performance
DRR = # of Defects Rejected/module to assess the module complexity
DRR = # of Defects Rejected/Team/Project to assess the team performance. and
DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Tester
DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Module
DLR = # of Defects uncovered/Project
( Uncovered- Defects missed out by the testing team)
16).Someone Complains That During System Testing The Application Often Crashes. What Likely Process Problem Does That Indicate?
Ans) Systematic failure to carry out proper unit testing. OR inconsistency between the development/unit test environment and the system test environment. AND ALSO management failure to respond promptly to the situation with corrective and preventative action.
17). What In Your Opinion Is The Role Of Sqa Personnel With Respect To Inspections Or Testing?
Ans) Formally, the role is to make the inspection process or testing process visible, both to the participants (so they can see what they are achieving, how effective they are being) and to management (so that they can assess progress and risk).
In practice, SQA personnel often need to act as facilitators or coaches. They are often regarded (wrongly) as the owners or custodians of the inspection or testing process, or even as the owners/custodians of the whole software process. Part of the trainee.
18).What Are The Most Likely Quality Consequences Of Choosing An Inappropriate Life Cycle Model For A Software Project?
Ans) The most likely consequence is that the project will not deliver anything at all. Not because the lifecycle couldn?t be made to work technically, but because it will fail to contain the political tensions between stakeholders.
19). What In Your Opinion Are The Most Significant Fundamental Differences Between Sei Sw-cmm And Iso 9000-3?
The main difference is what the two models tell you. ISO 9000-3 gives you a yes/no answer, whereas SEI SW-CMM gives you a more complex assessment. This implies different ways of using the models for SQA and process improvement.
20). What Advice Would You Give To Someone Who Asked You Where To Start To Introduce To Their Company A Metrics And Quality Reporting Program?
Ans) Use the GQM approach to derive relevant metrics from personal and corporate goals. Select a small number of key metrics that will be directly relevant to project managers and/or software engineers. Put the metrics into the hands of the workers, as a tool for personal performance improvement.
21).What Is A Discovery Method?
A discovery method is defined as a systematic and organized activity to assess, review, evaluate or otherwise analyze a process, program, operation, provider or outcome. The end product of a good discovery method is reliable data that provides evidence to support a conclusion or action either at the individual or system level. In order to produce systematic and reliable data, certain core features should be present in a discovery method.
22). What Does 6 Sigma Represent?
Ans) Meaning 99.999997% perfect; only 3.4 defects in a million.
23). Quality Control Is Reactive In Approach?
Ans) Quality Control is not a reactive in approach quality is built into the product right from the design stage, and SPC charts indicates before the process goes out of control such that we can take the corrective action before defective products are produced.
24). What Is An Usl In A Control Chart?
Ans) Upper Specification Limit
25). What is the use of SAP Quality Management system?
Ans)SAP Quality Management is part of SAP R/3 system and is integrated with other SAP modules like SAP Material Management MM, Production Planning PP and Plant Maintenance. QM is integral part of logistic management and is used to perform quality functions at incoming material, in process manufacturing process and raw material as well in the facility.
Ans)Inspection plan definition is an important part of the QM planning process. The inspection plan contains the number of characteristics of the item are to be inspected and list of tests to be performed for performing the inspection.
27). What comes under Quality assurance process?
Ans) A Quality inspection involves someone from the quality department inspects an item as per defined points in inspection plan. You perform the inspection based on one or more inspection lots, where a lot is a request to inspect a specific item.
In SAP system, you can create Inspection lot either manually by a user or automatically in the system.
28). What is Quality notification?
Ans)The quality notification process includes recording problem that is either identified by a customer for a product manufactured in an organization, or in a company against the product of a supplier/vendor.
Quality notification can be raised internally to raise an issue that has arisen on the production line. A quality notification can be assigned to an existing order or you can also create a new order as per the quality notification.
29).What are different standard reports in SAP Quality Management System?
Ans)You can create reports in QM system to check how many times a product has been identified with a defect and improvement areas that your company has to implement. There are number of reports that can be generated in QM −
It can be used to check the number of times an item has been identified with a defect status.
This report is used to show the number of defected material supplied by a vendor.
This can be checked by examining the inspection lots for goods receipts, a quality department can highlight vendors who are material which are failing in inspection.
This report is used to show the defects that were found on inspections for outbound deliveries. This helps organization to improve the quality of goods delivered and hence raise the customer satisfaction.
30). What activities of Controlling is integrated with Quality Management process?
Ans) You can integrate SAP QM with controlling process to manage the costs for defect control and non-confirmative costs in production process.
31). What are Quantitative specifications under Master Inspection charactertics?
Ans)You can directly get the results for quantitative specifications from inspection while doing result recording. You can set limits like minimum and maximum value for each parameter at master level. You can also attach the inspection method to inspection specification level.
32).What are Qualitative specifications under Master Inspection charactertics?
Ans) These specifications can take values like true/false or OK/Not OK.
33).How do you create an inspection method? An Inspection method can be created in one plant can be used in other plant?
Ans) You can use inspection method to perform the inspection. An inspection method can be assigned to master inspection charactertics or directly to an inspection charactertics in an inspection plan.
An Inspection method can be created in one plant same method can be used in other plant.
Creating an Inspection method
To create an inspection method, use T-code: QS31.
34).What do you understand by Sampling Procedure?
Ans)Sampling procedure in QM is used to determine the size of inspection lot to be used in inspection plan under Quality planning. You can define a sampling procedure as fixed sample, percentage or other sample.
35). What is a Sampling scheme?
Ans)A collection of sampling plans. You use a sampling scheme if you want to −
Determine the sample size on the basis of the lot size, inspection severity, or combination of inspection severity and AQL (actual quality level)
Store how a decision is made to accept or reject a characteristic.
Determine the number of physical samples, based on the lot size, or the number of containers in an inspection lot in sample management.
36). What is the use of Sampling Type?
Ans)The sampling type defines how a sample is calculated (for example, fixed sample, 100% inspection, use sampling scheme, percentage sample). Together with the valuation mode, the sampling type defines the parameters for sample determination.
Using the sampling type, the system proposes a list of rules for sample determination. If there is only one rule available, this is automatically chosen.
37).What is Valuation mode in Sampling Procedure?
Ans) The valuation mode defines the rules for accepting or rejecting a characteristic or sample. The sampling type and the valuation mode specify which parameters the system uses to determine a sample size.
38). How do you set Inspection point in an Inspection lot?
Ans)If you want to use inspection points in the sampling procedure, you need to set an indicator for the corresponding application area. This indicator specifies how many inspection points are to be created for each inspection lot.
39). What is the use of Quality Control Chart type? What does it specify?
Ans)If you want to use quality control charts in a sampling procedure, you must enter a quality control chart type. The control chart type specifies −
40).Where do you use Sampling Procedures?
Ans) Sampling procedures can be referenced in task lists, material specifications and in the inspection setup. The where-used list displays the task lists, material specifications and inspection setup, in which a sampling procedure is used.
41).What do you understand by Actual Quality Level value AQL?
Ans)Maximum fraction of nonconforming units (as a percentage) or maximum number of defects per 100 units permitted for a lot to be accepted. The AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) is the quality level that represents the upper limit of a satisfactory average quality level for an acceptance sampling inspection.
42).What do you define in an Inspection plan?
Ans)Materials to be inspected.
How the inspection of materials need to be taken place.
What characteristics to be inspected, work center and inspection specifications.
In the inspection plan, you have to define the sequence of inspection steps to be performed and the range of specifications as per master inspection characteristics MIC, sampling procedure to calculate the sample size for inspection, inspection method, etc.
43). What do you understand by lot inspection?
Ans) In SAP system, you can perform the incoming inspection for different material like raw material inspection, in progress material inspection or final goods inspection. Good receipt is generated as part of purchasing or against a scheduling agreement.
For each good receipt, SAP system creates a one inspection lot which contains details- vendor, date or purchase, etc.
44). What is result recording in QM process?
Ans) You can do the result recording for the inspection lot created at the time of Goods Receipt.
To perform the Result recording, go to T-code: QA32
45).What is usage decision again Inspection lot?
Ans) Usage decision is used to decide whether you want to accept or reject the goods in the inspection lot based on the results of the inspection. As per inspection results the process is marked as completed.
46).How do you activate/deactivate Inspection type?
Ans) Go to Logistics → Quality management → Quality planning → Logistics master data → Material → Inspection setup.
Choose "Activate insp. type" or "Deactivate insp. Type.
47).What is the inspection type for in process Inspection?
Ans) The in process inspection has a reference to a production order in SAP system. You generate an Inspection lot at the time of production order release and inspection type for in-process inspection is 03 in the system. When there is a production order release, inspection lot will be automatically created in the system.
48).When the final inspection is performed in QM process?
Ans)You perform final inspection of goods after production goods receipt in SAP system. Inspection lot is created after goods receipt for a production order.
49). What is the difference between Inspection Method and Inspection Plan?
Ans)Inspection plan in SAP is normally a task list based high level object describing details about what characteristics must be tested in order to ensure the quality of the product.
Inspection method is detailed info describing how to carry out inspection. It is a separate object and can be assigned to either characteristic or in the plan directly.
50).Explain the different steps that are involved in Final inspection process?
Ans) Final inspection process consists of the following steps −